Animals and Vegetation

The Chitwan valley features sub-tropical forest. Roughly 70% of the park is covered by sal forest (shorca rebusta), a moist deciduous vegetation type of terai region. The remaining types include grassland (20%), riverine forest (7%), and sal with chirpines (30%) forest which occurs on the churea range south border of the park.

The grassland form a diverse and complex community with over 50 plant species. The saccharum species, often called Elephant grass, can reach 8m. in height. The shorter grasses such as imperata are useful for roof thacthing.

There are more than 43 species of mammal in Chitwan National Park. The park is especially famous for its protection of the endangered one-horned rhinoceros. The estimated population of rhinos is 460. The park also secures populations of endangered species such as tiger Gaur (Largest of all bovine ) wild Elephant, four horned antelope , striped hyena, pangolin, gangetic dolphin, gharial crocodile, gangetic dolphins, monitor lizard and python. Other animals found in the park include 4 different types of deer: Sambar, Chital, hog deer, barking deer, sloth bear, common leopard, ratel, palsm civet, Tiger civet (Linsang), wild dog, langur and rhesus monkeys.

There are over 450 species of birds in the park, among the endangered birds are the Bengal floucan, giant hornbell, lesser floucan, black stork and white stork. A few of the common birds seen are peafowl, red jungle fowl, parakeets and different species of egrets, herons, kingfisher, flycatchers and woodpeckers. The best time for bird watching is March and December.

More than 45 different species of reptiles and amphibian occurs including Marsh mugger, crocodile, cobra, green pit viper and various species of frogs and tortoises.

Royal Chitwan National Park is actively engaged in the scientific study of several species of wild flora and fauna.